Crack In The Ground Oregon Directions Google |VERIFIED|
Getting There: Follow google maps directions to the coordinates below. Once you reach Highway 20, drive until you see milepost 77 and turn right onto the dirt road. This will take you to the Knappers Campsite among many other great spots to pull over and set up camp! The main roads are dirt, but they can be driven on without four wheel drive if they are dry. If it has been raining, they could be muddy and you may need a four wheel drive vehicle. The side roads, which lead to some cool deposits, would be best with a 4 wheel drive car, or at least a car with high clearance. You can always hike to the spots as well!
Crack In The Ground Oregon Directions Google
Crack in the Ground, or more accurately, volcanic fissure in the ground, resembles a slot canyon - Pacific Northwest style. A pair of igneous cliffs covered in moss stretch up to 70 feet tall from the fissure's bottom, separated by only arm's width in some sections. Birds sail up and down its length, occasionally tending to their nests in its walls. The bottom of the crack, sometimes up to 20 degrees cooler than the surface, can keep ice frozen in the spring.
Water movement in aquifers is highly dependent of the permeability of the aquifer material. Permeable material contains interconnected cracks or spaces that are both numerous enough and large enough to allow water to move freely. In some permeable materials groundwater may move several meters in a day; in other places, it moves only a few centimeters in a century. Groundwater moves very slowly through relatively impermeable materials such as clay and shale. (Source: Environment Canada)
This map shows the liquefaction hazard in the communities of Alameda, Berkeley, Emeryville, Oakland, and Piedmont for a magnitude 7.1 earthquake on the Hayward fault. The map predicts the approximate percentage of each designated area that will liquefy and show surface manifestations of liquefaction such as sand boils and ground cracking. Liquefaction is a phenomenon that is caused by earthquake shaking. Wet sand can become liquid-like when strongly shaken. The liquefied sand may flow and the ground may crack and move causing damage to surface structures and underground utilities. The map depicts the hazard at a regional scale and should not be used for site-specific design and consideration. Subsurface conditions can vary abruptly and borings are required to address the hazard at a given location.
It is difficult to visualize water underground. Some people believe that ground water collects in underground lakes or flows in underground rivers. In fact, ground water is simply the subsurface water that fully saturates pores or cracks in soils and rocks. Ground water is replenished by precipitation and, depending on the local climate and geology, is unevenly distributed in both quantity and quality. When rain falls or snow melts, some of the water evaporates, some is transpired by plants, some flows overland and collects in streams, and some infiltrates into the pores or cracks of the soil and rocks. The first water that enters the soil replaces water that has been evaporated or used by plants during a preceding dry period. Between the land surface and the aquifer water is a zone that hydrologists call the unsaturated zone. In this unsaturated zone, there usually is at least a little water, mostly in smaller openings of the soil and rock; the larger openings usually contain air instead of water. After a significant rain, the zone may be almost saturated; after a long dry spell, it may be almost dry. Some water is held in the unsaturated zone by molecular attraction, and it will not flow toward or enter a well. Similar forces hold enough water in a wet towel to make it feel damp after it has stopped dripping.
Aquifers can be replenished artificially. For example, large volumes of ground water used for air conditioning are returned to aquifers through recharge wells on Long Island, New York. Aquifers may be artificially recharged in two main ways: One way is to spread water over the land in pits, furrows, or ditches, or to erect small dams in stream channels to detain and deflect surface runoff, thereby allowing it to infiltrate to the aquifer; the other way is to construct recharge wells and inject water directly into an aquifer as shown on page 10. The latter is a more expensive method but may be justified where the spreading method is not feasible. Although some artificial-recharge projects have been successful, others have been disappointments; there is still much to be learned about different ground-water environments and their receptivity to artificial-recharge practices. A well, in simple concept, may be regarded as nothing more than an extra large pore in the rock. A well dug or drilled into saturated rocks will fill with water approximately to the level of the water table. If water is pumped from a well, gravity will force water to move from the saturated rocks into the well to replace the pumped water. This leads to the question: Will water be forced in fast enough under a pumping stress to assure a continuing water supply? Some rock, such as clay or solid granite, may have only a few hairline cracks through which water can move. Obviously, such rocks transmit only small quantities of water and are poor aquifers. By comparison, rocks such as fractured sandstones and cavernous limestone have large connected openings that permit water to move more freely; such rocks transmit larger quantities of water and are good aquifers. The amounts of water that an aquifer will yield to a well may range from a few hundred gallons a day to as much as several million gallons a day.
In this two-part video, our resident wildflower expert, Mike \"The Seed Man\" Lizotte, shows how to plant a wildflower meadow. Watch for tips preparing your land, sowing the seeds, and taking care of your planting as it grows and matures.\r\n1. Identify The Correct Planting Time For Your AreaFall is a perfect time to sow wildflower seeds. This timing follows the same approach as Mother Nature: wildflowers naturally drop their seeds in fall to take advantage of the freezing, thawing, and\/or extra moisture that winter delivers. This weather helps to crack open their hard, outer seed cases.Fall Planting Wildflower Seed in Colder Climates\r\nFall seeding is a good choice if you live in an area that experiences cold or freezing winters, and the ground freezes for more than 60 days. Though you have a shorter growing season, you\u2019ll get a jump start on spring growth, and should see color 2-4 weeks earlier than with spring planting.\r\nThe best strategy is to plant after at least one or two killing frosts. See our Frost Date Chart for frost dates in your area. You want to make sure that seeds lay dormant over the winter, and that there is no chance for germination. Yes, that\u2019s right\u2026You definitely don\u2019t want the seed to begin to sprout! Otherwise, those tiny wildflower shoots will simply die off as soon freezing temperatures arrive.\r\nIn cool climates, average ground temperatures for fall planting wildflower seeds need to be below 45 degrees. The biggest mistake people make with fall planting in cooler climates is sowing seed too soon. It takes time for soil temperatures to drop, even after air temperatures cool \u2013 especially if you\u2019ve had a warm summer. Soil cools down and warms up gradually, like a large body of water does. \r\nSee A Soil Temperature Map Here.\r\n\r\nFall Planting Wildflower Seed In Warmer Climates\r\n\r\n\r\nIn warmer climates, sowing wildflowers in fall allows you to take advantage of your rainy season and the natural precipitation that winter often brings to the warmest zones. Your seeds will also germinate in optimal temperatures for growth. Young plants that avoid early stress will develop into strong adult plants that are more resilient to stressful weather events in the future. (Spring plantings can be challenging in warm climates, where spring and summer heat requires lots of watering and can cause stress to young seedlings.)\r\nIf you live in a warm winter climate, you may choose to winter sow your wildflowers. Even though the ground doesn't freeze and harden, you can still take advantage of the dormant season by sowing seeds in January or February. You can expect your seed to germinate 2-4 weeks after planting. This is a great way to take advantage of the natural precipitation that winter often brings to the warmest zones.\r\nIf you live in a warm climate that experiences frosts, you can plant perennial wildflowers about 60-90 days before the first frost arrives.This will give perennials an opportunity to establish root systems that will endure over winter. Consult our Frost Date Chart for frost dates in your area.\r\nHave questions about getting the timing right? We're here to help! Contact Us.2. Preparation Is The Key To Success\r\nBetter preparation = more wildflowers! Use a tractor or rototiller, hand tools, solarization\/smothering, or organic herbicides to clear your soil of weeds, grasses, and other plants (roots and all), to make room for your wildflowers to grow and thrive.\r\nA note for climates with winter freeze: You should plan on working the soil to remove other plant life before the ground freezes. Ideally, you\u2019ll be sowing your wildflower seeds about 2-3 weeks after you\u2019ve tilled the planting site, after a few hard frosts. This schedule means that the seed will just lay dormant (sleeping) through the winter season and begin to germinate once the ground warms next spring.\r\n Why Is Soil Preparation Important?\r\nYour seeds will germinate better in a site without competing plants shading them out and stealing resources like nutrients and water.\r\nGrasses and weeds are vigorous growers that can out-compete wildflower seedlings, so removing them gives your wildflowers the best chance to thrive.\r\nSoil that has been loosened makes root growth much easier for thriving plants.\r\nSeeds need good contact with soil and plenty of sunlight to germinate and establish healthy roots.\r\nWithout the stress of competition early on, your young wildflowers will be better suited to compete with weeds and grasses that might try to grow back.\r\nWe don't recommend just throwing the seed out in the field or into grass; anyone who\u2019s tried scattering seed without removing other plants has been sorely disappointed when their wildflowers don\u2019t come up. \r\nFor details, see our helpful guide: 4 Ways To Prepare Your Site For Planting Wildflowers\r\n \r\nTips For Choosing A Site For Wildflowers\r\nYour soil is probably already perfect for wildflowers. The test is simple: If anything is growing in the area \u2014 even if it's just grasses or weeds \u2014 the area should support wildflowers without concern.\r\nWildflowers do not need fertilizer to grow well. Wildflowers, as we see on every roadside, are extremely adaptable and do well in poor soils. \r\nFull sun is a must for most wildflower varieties. Choose a sunny spot that receives 6+ hours of sun. (For areas with 4+ hours of sun, our Partial Shade Wildflower Seed Mix is a great option.)\r\nGood drainage is a requirement. Choose a place where water does not stand for longer than one hour after a rainfall. (For wet areas, try our Wet Area Wildflower Seed Mix.)\r\nTips For Choosing A Site For Your Wildflower Planting\r\nFull sun is a must. Choose a sunny spot with 6+ hours of sun. One exception is our Partial Shade Mixture, which only needs 4 hours of sun.\r\nSeed Man's Planting Tip: A minimum of 6 hours of sunlight is necessary for wildflowers to grow.\r\nYour soil is probably already perfect for wildflowers! Unless your soil is actually sterile, which is rare, it's recommended that you use your soil just as you find it. Wildflowers, as we see on every roadside, are extremely adaptable and do well in poor soils. Of course, if yours is heavy clay, you can till in sand or peat moss to loosen it. And if it's sandy, you can till in humus or compost to make it heavier and more moisture-retentive. But the test is simple: If anything is growing in the area \u2014 even if it's just grasses or weeds \u2014 the area should support wildflowers without concern.\r\nThe only absolute requirement is good drainage. Choose a place where water does not stand for longer than one hour after a rainfall.\r\nWildflowers do not demand fertilizer to grow well. Just take a look at the healthy wildflower plants found along most country roads - no one fertilizes there. Wildflowers are famous for growing in poor soils.\r\nSeed Man's Planting Tip: If you can grow weeds, you can grow wildflowers!\r\nPrepare Your Site: Better Soil Prep= More Flowers!Preparing the planting area is a task that many people tend to overlook or cut short. Maybe it\u2019s the thought of having to fire up the roto-tiller or work the ground with a spade for a few hours that doesn\u2019t appeal to most folks but trust us, it\u2019s the most critical step for success.\r\nNo matter if you\u2019re sowing 5 acres or 5 square feet, the more time you spend prepping the area before seeding, the better results you\u2019ll have.\r\nWhile we wish we could tell people to \"just throw the seed out in the field,\u201d we know that to be terrible advice. Anyone who\u2019s ever tried scattering seed without removing other plants has been sorely disappointed when their wildflowers don\u2019t come up.\r\nYou\u2019ll need to get rid of weeds, grasses, and other plants (roots and all) to make plenty of room for your wildflowers to grow and thrive. There\u2019s a set amount of water, nutrients, and sunlight available in every planting space and it\u2019s your job to remove any plants that will compete with your wildflowers before sowing your seeds.What could be a thick, lush planting of wildflowers will struggle to grow if it\u2019s left to compete with existing root structures in the soil. The better you prep the area, the more easily two very important things will happen:\r\nYour seeds will germinate quicker and stronger without competing plants shading them out and \u2018stealing\u2019 available food and water\r\nWithout the stress of competition early on, your young wildflowers will be better suited to compete with weeds and grasses that might try to grow back.\r\nSeed Man's Planting Tip: Take your time and be thorough. After your hard work is over, you'll get years of low-maintenance enjoyment from your planting!4 Ways To Clear The Ground Before Planting WildflowersWhile you have a few choices to consider around how to clear your soil, there are two factors that will help you to decide which one is the best for you: Size and Lead Time.\r\nSize: Large spaces are more apt to require equipment like rototillers (or even tractors if you're planting 1\/2 acre or more), while hand tools will be just fine for prepping small gardens and containers.\r\nLead Time: With a few weeks, a few months, or even an entire season ahead of your planting date, you may be able to prep your soil using labor-saving, cost-effective and\/or eco-friendly methods. Here are some soil prep approaches that work with different schedules:\r\nPlanting Immediately: If you're looking to sow your wildflower seeds within a week's time, you're usually limited to tilling or using hand tools to remove plant growth and existing roots. Some people rent or borrow equipment if they don't own it, while others are happy to prep their soil by hand to keep their planting budget-friendly.\r\nPlanting in 3 months: If you have a few months ahead of you, you can make use of natural herbicides and weed killers. This approach reduces physical labor, and also allows time for the chemicals to dissipate before they can do any harm to your wildflower planting. Alternately, this time frame means that the soil can be worked with a tiller or hand tools multiple times, allowing for weed seeds to be repeatedly brought to the top of the soil and killed off, diminishing their overall appearance in your meadow.\r\nPlanting in 6+ months: With a good amount of time to spare, you have the eco-friendly option of using plastic sheeting or other materials to kill off weeds by smothering them out. This technique is very effective, does not require much physical effort, and costs very little.\r\nRoto-tilling:\r\nFor larger areas, a rototiller can be used to break up the ground and soften the soil. These are often very affordable to rent if you don't own one. It's important to \"till\" only as deep as necessary to remove old roots. 4 to 6 inches deep should do the trick.\r\nThe deeper you till, the more dormant weed seeds you'll turn up near the surface where they can sprout along with your wildflowers. If your area has been an old field that has grown and seeded itself for years, expect plenty of weed seeds in the soil.\r\nIf you're tilling a lawn that's been mowed for years, chances are your weed seed count will be low. Careful rototilling works well for three reasons: It opens the soil and allows a \"soft\" space for emerging flower plants; It creates a good seedbed for germination and promotes good \"seed-to-soil\" contact; And, of course, it removes almost all the existing grasses and weeds which would otherwise compete with your seedlings.\r\nA very thorough approach for tilling is to plan to take 2-3 passes over the soil, all spaced a few weeks apart. The first tilling can be done at a depth of 4-6\u201d, with each consecutive tilling being done at a shallower depth. This allows you to intentionally bring weed seeds up, have them germinate, and then kill them off in your next tilling. Your first two passes will be aimed at cleaning weeds out of the soil, while the final pass is meant to correctly prep the soil for your upcoming planting.Solarization and Smothering:\r\nBoth of these methods are aimed at killing weeds by laying materials over your planting site.\r\nSolarizing Weeds: Lay clear plastic, like a painting drop cloth, over your soil. The sun will shine down on the plastic, trapping an excessive amount of heat and moisture underneath, which will kill any existing plant life.\r\nAn added benefit of solarization is that some weed seeds may be encouraged to germinate in the sunlight before the heat kills them off.\r\nSmothering Weeds: (also called 'occultation') Lay a heavy tarp, blanket, or sheets over the planting site for 4-6 weeks. This cuts plant life off from available sunlight and also introduces a whole lot of warmth. Weed seeds that germinate in darkness will sprout under the heavy fabric, but will then die off from lack of sunlight.\r\nAn added benefit of smothering is that it creates the perfect environment for earthworms and other soil life to eat the decaying plant growth and loosen up the soil.Hand Tools:\r\nFor a small area, the project is the same as preparing for a new vegetable garden, and a shovel or spade and rake is usually all that's needed.\r\nSimply dig out everything that's growing there, turn the soil, and rake the area flat and free from rocks and roots. (By the way, here's one advantage of meadow gardening over vegetable gardening. A few rocks and some uneven spots won't bother a wildflower planting, so there's usually less to do.)\r\nOld grass roots are especially important \u2014 be sure to remove them or they'll grow back along with your new wildflower plants. If necessary, use a pickaxe - or the smaller, handheld version called a mattock, or even a sharp spade.Natural Herbicides:\r\n\r\nThose who are really struggling to remove tough weeds may choose to turn to chemical applications. Organic (non-synthetic) herbicides are available at mo